Session 2

Philipp Lenard was awarded Nobel Prize for physics in 1905 for his work on Cathode Rays. One of his most important work was his contribution to experimental realization of photo-voltic effect. When Einstein published his quantum theory explaining PV effect, Lenard wrote to him “…nothing can make me happier that a *thinker* of great depth and scope deriving pleasure from my work.” Lenard did not recognise him as a theoretical physicist.

“At present the main stream physicists have fully accepted STR, because predictions match observation and experiment. However, if one re-examines them with an open mind serious problem arise. Experiments have also found that they are wrongly interpreted as calculated. The physics is mostly based on consensus among physicists. The interpretations of experiments are not exactly what the results mean.”

Sabine Hossenfelder, a theoretical physicist again a German, in her book: Lost in Mathematics- How beauty leads Physics astray, says: ‘You can’t lie with math. But it greatly aids obfuscation!’

II

Newton was misled by what he called gravitational force; a wrong interpretation as I have already proved. Gravity is what I call ‘slip of the curve’ which lasts 1200 seconds only. Gravity is an observer recording velocity of mass in free fall conditions. He gave us a wrong equation, that what is called second law of motion. Mathematically he married gravity with mass and arrived at: f = mg. the water turbine accepts m v to do work, not f = mg!

F = mg led to K e = ½ mv^{2} - wrong. It led to e = mc^{2} again wrong. And then Einstein culminated it at Quantum Mechanics; light digging gold from silicon cells. Mechanics!

After Big-bang, I don’t think matter has taken any rest. So inventing force to run the motion of celestial bodies is ludicrous.

Let us enter the actual battlefield- the Solar system. I start with Kepler. His second law is under scrutiny now. As the figure shows it and expressed in words it says: Earth sweeps equal areas in equal intervals of time. A cursory inspection of the figure in question means, earth accelerates when it is near the Sun at Perihelion and continuously decelerates till it reaches Aphelion point. World accepted it but never asked: how can 152 be so long and 149 so

short. There is no need to measure distances. A visual inspection is enough to dismiss the claim.

But this claim that the sun runs the show gave Newton ideas. He invented apple story and concluded that the earth attracts all falling objects but missed the point; how could he go home because entire earth was now attracting his feet. I think he had no idea about hugeness of sizes, curvature of earth etc. A tree when compared to earth is not even a dot.

The non-constant velocity of earth set him about finding ‘rate of change of velocity’. But why?

His contribution to physics is great in the sense he made Time a physical quantity and accurately loaded mass with motion expressed as momentum. He should have stopped there and worked out dimensions of work. A watermill was nearest place to observe how momentum does work. But he started with a conviction and went about in search of Force that was responsible for motion of celestial bodies.

Newton created the anti-thesis of his own brilliant work. He called it Force. Defined it: Rate of change of momentum is force.

F = m g!

He had to accommodate gravity in the scheme of celestial things. So married mass with gravity and created a crisis.

He then assumed universal gravitational constant and made a mess. The value of big G became legal currency and all those who followed him benefitted but created wrong interpretations of observable facts.

III

I shall take on Einstein on two counts in this session. But before I “Enter the Dragon” and mount my own execution, I shall make the issue of gravity clearer.

A rat weighing 1 kg and a stone weighing 50 kg share the same velocity vector which is roughly 12 km/s directed towards the earth. Both possess Rest Momentum in the ratio of 1:50. If both fall for 20 minutes both will acquire 12 km/s velocity. In the interval 0 – 1200 seconds appreciation of velocity will be @ 9.86 m/s. that is the character of the path on which both will move. But the life span of gravity is only 1200 seconds. During this period entire rest momentum is converted into dynamic momentum.

Gravity is like a meter or odometer which tells us what is the velocity at the time of collision with the Earth. It doesn’t take part in any activity like LHC only accelerates the particles but doesn’t interfere with the collision of particle.

Let us assume 1 kg stone is dropped from 10- meter height. When it strikes the ground, its velocity will be 14 m/s. That is all. Gravity is not involved in collision.

**I call gravity Slip of the Curve! **

When we launch a satellite in space, the space agencies do nothing but load the satellite with motion which can be less or more than 12 km/s depending upon the design parameters.

So, there is no super-gravity, weak gravity, quantum gravity. No gravity of the Sun which bends non-existent light from alpha-century.

All animate and inanimate mass on earth including botanical life possess rest momentum. The living organisms have learnt to access this RM and create dynamic momentum. Animal life can’t create energy even for walking. The walking is controlled falling. Now this I shall explain in the concluding part.

Time has come when I shall take on Einstein on his inability to grasp the truth about dynamics. He blindly followed what was available and moved on.

Einstein abetted the equation F = Mg, the crass equation in physics. Acceleration does not form part of matter. Velocity does. Acceleration is curiosity. It doesn’t take part in action as stated above.

He also abetted UGC or Big G value which is numerically product of earth parameters.

G = g x r^{2} /m ( r is radius & m, mass of earth)

In this equation time is missing which alone would give it some sort of legitimacy. He also abetted a hilarious equation in physics.

Imagine a bowler shoots a ball to a batsman and I say: mass becomes one-half and velocity squares itself.

Mathematically speaking e = x v^{2}

The blind faith in such an equation created a diversion and garbage became science.

It seems he reverse engineered it to make it e = m c^{2}

It is a mystery no body pointed out as to how could velocity of light if it is a constant be squared!

He also volunteered to explain the orbital enigma of planet Mercury, proposed Relativity, warped space around the sun and married space with time.

In this way he laid foundation of Industrial cosmos. The real Cosmos is hardly concerned about what we think of it. But industrial cosmos is creating machines to prove: Einstein has already said it; said that. Every other day media tells us: Einstein has been proved correct once again.

**Whether Einstein or his first wife drafted the scientific paper about photo-voltic effect of light is not the issue. Double character of light doesn’t receive certificate of being because it is supposed to knock electrons into conduction band of a semi-conductor! Let us do some math.**

Molar Mass of silicon =28.0855 x 10^{-3} kg

Atomic Mass = = 4.663 x 10^{-26} kg

Since silicon has diamond cubic structure its unit cell contains 8 atoms

Mass of cell = 8 x 4.663 x 10^{-26} = 37.3 x 10^{-26} kg

Density of silicon = 2331 kg/m^{3}

Volume of cell = mass/density = 37.3 x 10^{-26} /2331 = 160 x 10^{-30} m^{3 }

If lattice parameter is p then p^{3} = 160 x 10^{-30 } or p = 5.43 x 10^{-10} A

Radius of silicon atom is = 1.32 A

So, inter-atomic distance along lattice is 5.43 – 2 x 1.32 = 2.79 A Books tell us it is 2.35 A.

Inter-atomic distance along diagonals is root 2 x 2.35 = 3.31 A

**Now, we can visualise the topography of a silicon wafer. It is a regular valley – cliffs feature when viewed from above. But an inter-connected tunnel system when seen in x-section. The grid lock allows flow of electrons. But where are electrons?**

From International Space Station the astronomers watch a glowing sun. but it is not light proper or else the space won’t be dark. It is Sun’s identity card; Mass, Volume, Thermal count, Chemical abundance ratio taken together.

Between a black body radiation and black body absorption lies the domain of illumination if and only if collision between charged matter and dead matter happens.

The sun supplies energy packets charged and spinning. The spin creates electro-magnetic field or waves. It takes about 500 seconds for radiation to reach earths’ upper atmosphere. The ensuing collisions result in what is called photons or light. The light signifies death of energy packets. But the electro-magnetic waves are leading. The collision of charged packets release electrons which ride the waves in disproportionate random manner. And that is what we see as spectrum. The table shows it all.

Violet 380 – 450 nm 680 – 790 THz Electron burden = say 1

Blue 450 – 485 nm 620- 680 THz Electron burden > 1 say 2

Green 500 – 565 nm 530- 600 THz Electron burden > 2 say 3

Orange 635 – 590 nm 485 – 510 THz Electron burden > 3 say 4

Yellow 590 – 560 nm 510 – 540 THz Electron burden > 4 say 5

Red 700 – 635 nm 430 – 480 THz Electron burden > 5 say 6

As electron burden increases the wave length increases, frequency falls and as a consequence energy falls. So, the count of electrons on an e-m wave determines its colour.

Now we understand, it is the waves which are carriers of electrons. They supply electrons which flood the empty space of the PV cell and get collected at the terminals.

It is clear no mechanics is involved in the vestibule of a silicon wafer. It is a simple trap and release mechanism.

If 10 litres of water are flowing through a pipe per second, 10 litres/s will emerge after one kilometre. Similarly, if 100 PV cells are connected in series, number of electrons collected at the last cell will be same as were captured by the first cell. Finite space allows finite number of electrons to pass through tunnels of interconnected cells. The electrons as they pass through 99 cells only pick up wave energies which excites them. It expresses itself as voltage across the terminals. Since energy absorbed by electrons is much higher than their ground state energy, their capacity to do work is positive.

As is in practice now, 36 cells are connected in series to harvest light energy. It has been seen that 1 PV cell produces 0.5 volts and current 30 mA. Let us calculate number of electrons captured by the 1st cell.

1 mA charge = 6.25 x 1018 x 10^{-3 } = 6.25 x 10^{15} electrons

30mA charge = 187.5 x 10^{15} electrons

These electrons will emerge from the last cell because the space is choke-a-block filled with electrons. But in all subsequent cells, electrons pick up the energy available courtesy the waves. Let us calculate field energy in each cell.

Taking mean value of frequency of visible light that is 550 nm and which corresponds to green light for calculation, we have:

E = h v = 6.63 x 10^{-34} x 6 x 10^{14} = 39.78 x 10^{-20} Joules

The electrons numbering 187.5 x 10^{15} collect this energy which equals to

E = 187.5 x 10^{15} x 39.78 x 10^{-20} Joules

=7458.75 x 10^{-5} Joules = 0.745875 joules

Our voltmeters record this energy as 0.5 volts. So, 36 cells deliver 18 volts but current remains constant at 30 mA because the number of electrons captured by 1st cell does not increase.

I am not still through with rubbishing the PV effect as explained by Einstein. Let us see what happens in Photosynthesis?

It is beyond my capabilities to lecture biologists and botanists simply because I could not pick up even the rudiments of organic chemistry. But I shall place the thermodynamic scenario before them.

The current argument is: Photosynthetic pigments such as Chlorophyll, Chloroplast and Carotenoids have light harvesting molecules. The light causes oxidation, releasing electrons for photosynthetic reaction. The reaction is very simple:

6 H_{2} o + 6 Co_{2} à C_{6} H_{12} O_{6} + 6 O_{2}

Let us workout the energy requirement of disassociation and reassociation of molecules.

Electrolysis of water requires 286 KJ/mole or 15.8 KJ/cc

Carbon dioxide split requires 393. 5 KJ/mole or 8.94 KJ/gm

**It means every tree is a dynamo which creates so much energy which of course is beyond the capacity of botanical life.**

I need to explain it.

The green pigment of the leaf is not there to receive light but to reflect the incoming shower of electrons carried by electro-magnetic waves. Since the visible light lies in the domain 700 nm to 400 nm, the average (700 + 400) = 1100/2 = 550 nm corresponds to green light. The mechanism to control the incoming traffic lies with chlorophyll etc. the leaf serves an anode. There must be a shunt or by pass mechanism to divert overpotential caused by higher intensity of light.

So, photo-voltic effect is not what Einstein said it is, but available electrons riding electro-magnetic waves.** He knocks out non-existent electrons with the hammer of mathematics.**

All blame goes to fake math calculus which turns garbage into science.

**Robert Brown** was a botanist who was studying diffusion of particles in conditions living. Einstein being an expert angler volunteered to define motion in dead gases mathematically. So, he twisted some math hooks, rods, floats, sinkers and went fishing in a desert. Let us see whether he understood the problem in the first place.

The table given below allows us a peep of what is going on in the world of gases.

Gas Mol Mass Volume Inter-Molecular degree of freedom

Hydrogen 2 gms 22.4 lit 1/2 or 50%

Nitrogen 28 gms -do- 1/14 or 7.14%

Oxygen 32 gms -do- 1/16 or 6.25%

Florine 18.99 gms -do- 1/19 or 5.26%

Chlorine 70 gms -do- 1/35 or 2.857%

The volume is fixed. Mass is increasing. Conditions NTP. So, what is decreasing?

Obviously, their intermolecular distances are decreasing and as a consequence degree of inter-molecular freedom is decreasing. Being at NTP their entropy is maximum and internal energy zero. One should not make the mistake that degree of freedom of chlorine is much lower with respect to hydrogen, then internal energy of chlorine is more.

**So, how do we define pressure now?**

Ever since, Newton quantified the hypothetical Force = Mg he guided physicists on a wrong path. The phrase ‘force’ created a culvert for physicists to circumvent finding truths about natural phenomenon. Everything became ‘Force’.

Buoyant force; frictional force; magnetic force; weak nuclear force; strong nuclear force and pressure too became force.

I wonder why can’t physicists interpret a very simple observation like loss of weight in water for last 300 years. The information is in front of them. A simple mental math will tell us weight of body in a fluid. And once f = mg is out of circulation; how can they explain loss of weight of mass in water.

You have to feel matter to understand matter!

**Pressure is defined as Force which a gas imposes on a surface. But what is force? **

At the ground state/stage no gas is undergoing collisions. There is no need. I have already mentioned that v^{2} x m/2 is hilarious and product of fiction.

Let us study a container holding Nitrogen gas, volume being 22.4 lit. the gas possesses RM because it has mass and is in sync with the spin of the earth. Now we apply heat. What will happen?

The supply of heat will lower the entropy of the system and the capacity of gas to do work will become positive. First the molecules will arrange themselves radially to oppose any change in their state. But continued heating will be answered by molecules by shrinking the intermolecular distance to make Internal Energy positive. It is clear that the gas is capable of doing work now.

Let us study the opposite case. When the compression stroke in an IC engine reaches TDC, the volume of air squeezes into cv. Since volume shrinks density increases. In case of diesel engine, the compression ratio is 1:14. So what you call pressure is actually density which is 14 times the normal and temperature shoots to 700^{0} C.

So, density and intermolecular distance are linked. In class 8 we were told that heat is that which gives us sensation of warmth. Since then I don’t think situation has improved.

Since density, IM distance and thermal count are linked we can define heat as function of intermolecular distance. And like steam enthalpy table we can have gas Kelvin tables to grasp nature of gases.

Density, volume, thermal quantity and intermolecular distance are a tie. They are wedded to each other.

IV

The argument about quantum mechanics is far from over. When Einstein PV interpretation was accepted it was a consensus not a certificate of certainty. The decision was influenced by bending of light- which in my opinion was a set up.

We don’t photograph light. We snap an image. The intelligent amongst the audience would have advanced a simple suggestion. Let us repeat the experiment during night and see how straight beam of light looks?

So, falsehood fed falsehood and bred false hood. After 100 years Natalie Wolchover with Quanta Magazine wails: Have we been interpreting quantum mechanics wrongly? “Reality has been a murky concept,” says she “the idea the idea is inherently probabilistic- that particles have no hard properties only likelihoods until they are observed.”

The problem is once we start observing a quanta size particle, we load it with information and that robs the particle of its ground state. But that is half the story. The other half is that it has to be picked up by a say an interpreting instrument. It further robs the particle of its nature.

Herbert Spencer (Spencer Pacific Scientific Institute) in Dec 2018 writes: ……. at least, 12 earlier QM interpretation have been critically analysed- the broad interest is; what is QM?

V

What is Education? Simple! Language and Information; two wings for a wingless bird. It means information retailed in schools and colleges should be absolutely correct. There is scope for placing presumptive ideas before the students but it should not pass as information worth cherishing. rew

The books of mathematics and physics have to be re-written to make education socially rewarding. If a PhD student serves as a packaging boy in a Shopping Mall or drives a Taxi means much is missing in the quantum of information for which parents pay.

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